Akbarnama is the official chronicle of the reign of Akbar, the third Mughal Emperor (r. 1556-1605), commissioned by him and written by his court historian Abul Fazl. It is one of the most important sources of Mughal history and culture, containing rich details of Akbar's administration, military campaigns, religious policies, arts and sciences, and personal life.
The original Akbarnama was written in Persian, the language of the Mughal court, and consisted of three volumes: the first volume narrates the history of Akbar's ancestors from Timur to Humayun; the second volume covers the events of Akbar's reign from 1556 to 1602; and the third volume, known as the Ain-i-Akbari (The Institutes of Akbar), describes the various aspects of Akbar's empire, such as its geography, revenue system, army, judiciary, social customs, festivals, etc.
The Akbarnama has been translated into various languages, including Urdu, which is a language that emerged from the interaction of Persian with local languages such as Hindi. The Urdu translation of Akbarnama was done by Molavi Muhammad Fida Ali Talib in the 19th century and is available online for free download[^1^]. The Urdu translation preserves the style and content of the original Persian text, while making it accessible to a wider audience.
The Akbarnama is a valuable resource for anyone interested in learning about the life and times of Akbar, one of the greatest rulers of India and the world. It showcases his achievements as well as his challenges, his vision as well as his limitations, his tolerance as well as his conflicts. It also reveals the diversity and richness of Mughal culture and society, which was influenced by various religions, regions, and peoples.
If you want to read more about Akbarnama in Urdu, you can download the PDF file from this link[^1^] or visit this website[^2^] for more information.
Akbar was born in 1542, when his father Humayun was in exile after losing his empire to the Afghan ruler Sher Shah Suri. Akbar spent his childhood in various places, such as Kabul, Kandahar, and Lahore, under the care of his relatives and tutors. He became the emperor at the age of 13, after Humayun's death in 1556. He inherited a precarious situation, as his empire was threatened by rebellious nobles, Afghan invaders, and Rajput kingdoms. He had to rely on his regent Bairam Khan, a loyal and experienced general, to consolidate his authority and expand his domains.
Akbar proved to be a remarkable ruler, who not only conquered most of India through his military campaigns, but also established a stable and efficient administration that ensured peace and prosperity for his subjects. He reformed the revenue system, promoted trade and commerce, patronized arts and sciences, and fostered a culture of religious tolerance and syncretism. He abolished the jizya (a tax on non-Muslims), encouraged inter-faith dialogue, and founded a new religion called Din-i-Ilahi (Divine Faith), which combined elements of Islam, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and other faiths. He also married several Hindu princesses, including Jodha Bai of Amber (Jaipur), who became his favorite wife.
Akbar was a champion of new styles in literature, architecture, music, and painting. Although his son Jahangir later chronicled that Akbar was illiterate, it is most likely that Akbar was dyslexic, which would have made it very difficult for him to read. However, he had a keen interest in learning and commissioned many books to be translated into Persian from Sanskrit, Arabic, Greek, and other languages. He also established a large library and a school of painting at his capital Fatehpur Sikri, where he invited artists from different regions and traditions to work under his patronage. He encouraged them to experiment with new techniques and themes, such as portraiture, naturalism, and historical narratives.[^3^] 061ffe29dd